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Manuals / Guidelines / Reports
Making Standards Work MAKING PRIVATE STANDARDS WORK FOR YOU: A GUIDE TO PRIVATE STANDARDS IN THE GARMENTS, FOOTWEAR AND FURNITURE SECTORS

Today, more and more companies in emerging economies are becoming global producers. The liberalisation of consumer markets provides these companies with opportunities for exporting their products to global markets where they are increasingly required to comply with private standards, a phenomenon on the rise. Also known as business values, norms, ethics, codes and practices, private standards are considered to be one way of promoting social development and environmental sustainability. The aim of this guide is to provide clarity in terms of the information available on private standards, as well as to outline a detailed strategic approach for suppliers in developing countries faced with this challenge.
CSR RESPONSIBLE ENTREPRENEURS ACHIEVEMENT PROGRAMME: UNIDO'S CSR PROGRAMME - REACHING OUT TO SMES WORLDWIDE

The Responsible Entrepreneurs Achievement Programme (REAP) is a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) based management and reporting tool that helps smaller companies to implement CSR concepts, thereby aligning economic, social and environmental aspects of business. Based on the ten principles of the UN Global Compact, as well as international standards in the social and environmental domains, such as ISO 14001, SA 8000, or OHSAS 18001, it provides a structured framework in combination with  analytical software, which can be used to gather, process, evaluate and report data used to track progress in implementing CSR in SMEs. REAP allows for an effective assessment of CSR performance and the implementation of CSR principles using a concept that is in line with a company’s core business strategy, productivity considerations and operational costs.
ISOasia ISO 9001 - ITS RELEVANCE AND IMPACT IN ASIAN DEVELOPING ECONOMIES

This survey evaluates the ISO certified quality management system development, the certification bodies, and the economic benefits of accreditation in SAARC and South East Asian Economies. Based on the ISO 9001 which builds the foundation for a successful certification, specifically in the customer-centered area of the ‘Quality Management System’, the project evaluates the levels of conformity that have been attained by companies operating primarily in the manufacturing and construction sectors. The study interviews institutional purchasers’ to determine their satisfaction with the performance of ISO 9001 accredited suppliers and investigates suppliers’ motivations for seeking certification from accredited certification bodies. Key findings indicate that the overall perceptions of ISO accredited certification are positive, although sometimes the role of accreditation is not well understood by either purchasers or the certified organizations. Overall the study demonstrates that there are clear empirical economic benefits to the implementation and accredited certification of quality management systems in the Asian developing economies. 
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BUILDING TRUST - THE CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT TOOLBOX (ISO AND UNIDO)

The publication is a comprehensive, user-friendly handbook for business managers, regulators and consumer representatives. Successive reviews of the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade have noted the usefulness of the conformity assessment standards and guides developed by ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in harmonizing conformity assessment practices and as benchmarks for the technical competence of assessment bodies. The use of these standards and guides helps overcome trade barriers. UNIDO has acquired more than 40 years of experience in supporting the establishment and upgrading of standards and conformity assessment structures worldwide. Building trust covers a range of aspects relating to conformity assessment, including basic concepts, conformity assessment techniques, schemes and systems, and conformity assessment bodies. It shows how UNIDO can help set up a quality infrastructure. It also provides case studies. The handbook is the latest in a series of joint publications issued by ISO and UNIDO. Related Links: UNIDO and ISO
Resource Guide
TRADE CAPACITY BUILDING INTER-AGENCY RESOURCE GUIDE

Enhancing the capacity to participate in global trade is becoming increasingly critical for economic growth in developing countries.  This has put additional emphasis on the need for trade-related technical assistance to accompany such economic development. Bilateral and multilateral development partners provide a wide range of services which often need to complement each other if they are to support national trade development needs and strategies in a coherent and efficient manner. In support of such efforts, UNIDO has now published the 2010 edition of the Trade Capacity Building Resource Guide, which focuses in particular on the WTO-led Aid for Trade Initiative. This Resource Guide will further increase the transparency and efficiency of trade-related technical assistance and its benefits for countries and people in their efforts to stimulate trade-led economic growth, increased employment and the creation of wealth. It is a unique source of information for developing countries and donors for the development of technical assistance programmes, and will also facilitate the coordination of trade capacity-building activities within the United Nations system, in particular through UN Resident Coordinator and UN Country Teams.
 Volume I, Volume II
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FAST FORWARD - NATIONAL STANDARDS BODIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

This publication represents an updating and broadening of ISO Manual 1:1994, Establishment and Management of a National Standards Body. It covers the main principles of standardization at national, regional and international levels and illustrates the elements of structure from which it is necessary to choose in order to manage the process at a national level. It encapsulates the experience of the ISO Committee on developing country matters (ISO/DEVCO) in dealing with developing countries, and draws upon UNIDO’s 40 years of work in helping to establish and upgrade NSBs and the quality infrastructure in developing countries and in assisting users in the implementation of standards.  Related link
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METHODOLOGICAL GUIDE: RESTRUCTURING, UPGRADING AND INDUSTRIAL COMPETITIVENESS

In response to the numerous requests from developing countries and countries with economies in transition, UNIDO has in the past few years introduced a comprehensive and multidisciplinary global approach to industrial restructuring and upgrading. This integrated approach forms part of a new “Trade Facilitation” initiative, a programme developed by UNIDO to keep up the pace of continued improvement in the productivity, competitiveness and integration of industry and of increased employment and exports. This approach integrates the enterprise into its immediate environment. It has been developed, tested and tried out during the past few years and takes account of the experience gained by UNIDO in the implementation of a number of projects and successful experiments (Portugal, Republic of Korea, Tunisia, etc.). This guide was written following the 1997 publication of an initial paper on the concept of upgrading and a manual on company restructuring, as well as following the charting and implementation by UNIDO of several restructuring and upgrade projects and programmes. This publication is a methodological tool designed for the heads of industry in developing countries and economies in transition as well as for consultants offering specialist advice in restructuring and industrial upgrading.
Supporting Conformity Assessment SUPPORTING CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT : THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

As an agency specializing in industrial development, UNIDO is implementing a number of projects in developing countries in the area of standards and conformity assessment, particularly in testing and calibration laboratories in different fields, such as legal and industrial metrology and food and microbiology laboratories. UNIDO currently maintains a large project portfolio that covers standards, certification, metrology, testing and accreditation. Hence UNIDO is expanding its scope to forge systematic cooperation relationships not only with ISO (International Organization for Standardization) but also with the other two key industrial standard bodies, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The brochure is intended to provide developing countries with information about international organizations that are either directly involved in conformity assessment or in underpinning activities such as standardization and metrology.
Click here to see ITU Conformity and Interoperability Portal  
Complying with ISO 17025
COMPLYING WITH ISO 17025 - A PRACTICAL GUIDEBOOK

Complying with ISO 17025 is a guidebook written to assist testing and calibration laboratories in setting up a quality management system that conforms to ISO 17025:2005, the international standard for laboratory quality systems. Complying with ISO 17025 enables laboratories to identify where their current operations meet the requirements of ISO 17025 and, in those areas where they do not, guides them in developing systems to achieve such compliance. The guidebook’s coverage of the requirements of the standard is comprehensive and detailed, and its guidelines on implementing systems and procedures to meet these requirements are practical, specific and clearly linked, item by item, to the detailed specifications of the standard. Complying with ISO 17025 aims to engage its users in addressing compliance issues in the concrete reality of their own laboratory.
UNIDO MEETING STANDARDS, WINNING MARKETS: TRADE STANDARDS COMPLIANCE 2010

The Trade Standards Compliance Report gathers, for the first time, an overview of current and emerging trade compliance challenges and offers in-depth comparisons of challenges faced by developing countries when exporting to major international markets, and of the estimations of resulting export losses. It also sketches out innovative approaches to measuring standards compliance performance and to improving trade-related technical assistance. This Report provides all development partners with unprecedented access to product rejection data, presents innovative analysis, and proposes new approaches to better assess developing countries’ standards compliance capacities. The impact of non-compliance is addressed and options for a more effective allocation of trade-related technical assistance efforts are identified. At the same time, developing countries can use the Report to benchmark their compliance performance with peers or competitors and will be able to direct their development efforts more efficiently. Through this Trade Standards Compliance Report, we aim to ensure that the efforts of the international community properly meet the needs of the poor and enable the creation of wealth through productive, export-driven employment opportunities.
tcb aid A PRACTICAL CONTRIBUTION TO AID FOR TRADE

While stressing the need to help countries negotiate and comply with trade agreements, including provisions to offset adjustment costs, both Task Forces recommended that building productive capacity and trade-related infrastructure in developing countries should also be a key feature of AfT efforts. They also underscored the need for donors to integrate trade and growth issues more effectively, to use genuine needs assessments, and to support interagency initiatives. Conscious of the obstacles facing developing countries in their efforts at trade participation, UNIDO has realigned its technical assistance approach and launched a trade capacity-building programme. This is built on the principle of forming strategic partnerships with other multilateral and technical organizations and agencies in order to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of technical support.
Zero UNIDO FARMS TO MARKETS NEWSLETTER
ZERO ISSUE, APRIL 2009


The 2008 food crisis made it very clear that developing countries are extremely vulnerable to fluctuations in food prices and supplies. As such, the international community called for the deployment of urgent measures to help farmers and food producers increase their productivity and integrate local, regional and international markets. In line with its policy of enabling developing countries to help themselves, UNIDO swiftly responded and stepped up its efforts to assist developing countries in strengthening agribusiness value chains, expand their food supplies and facilitate their access to markets, technology and investment. In its first International Conference on Sharing Innovative Agribusiness Solutions, UNIDO brought together over 400 participants from more than 65 countries to share innovative solutions and best practices. To build on its success and to sustain its innovative knowledge sharing concept, the Conference recommended establishing mechanisms for the regular dissemination of relevant information on agribusiness solutions; thus the publication of this newsletter.
one UNIDO FARMS TO MARKETS NEWSLETTER ISSUE ONE, DECEMBER 2009

This edition gives an example on how we build supplier compliance and help small-scale farmers and producers in developing countries catch up with the rapid transformation of local and global markets. At the same time, it provides the reader with a comprehensive retrospective on the Cairo Conference, so that the reader can ascertain how, one year after the event, participants have concretely benefited. This issue also deals with how these projects have evolved, presenting new success stories and feedback from participants on their projects’ most recent developments.
agribusiness REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SHARING INNOVATIVE AGRIBUSINESS SOLUTIONS
FROM FARMS TO MARKETS: PROVIDING KNOW-HOW AND FINANCE 26-27 NOVEMBER 2008, CAIRO, EGYPT.

The first International Conference on Sharing Innovative Agribusiness Solutions (held in Cairo, Egypt from 26 to 27 November 2008)  brought together over 400 agribusiness stakeholders from more than 65 countries, including representatives of private and public institutions (technical and financial), international organizations, donor countries, civil society, universities and research institutions to share innovative agribusiness solutions. The Conference was organized by UNIDO, in close cooperation with the Government of Egypt and the SEKEM initiative; it was also supported by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and co-financed by the Italian Development Cooperation and the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs, as well as local sponsors. The Conference highlighted innovations and best practices that have proven successful in specific countries or regions, but have not yet been shared globally, and encouraged their up-scaling and replication in other developing countries. The Conference encouraged both North-South and South-South cooperation and the numerous new partnerships that resulted from the event are being actively supported by UNIDO through its network of Investment and Technology Promotion Offices and Units (ITPOs/IPUs) and UNIDO partners.
road map to quality A ROADMAP TO QUALITY. AN E-LEARNING MANUAL FOR IMPLEMENTING TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT.

A Roadmap to Quality is a manual for implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) throughout a company. Its 20 units and over 160 short texts provide clear practical guidelines for the full range of management activities – from managing company policy to keeping the workplace clean and tidy. Learning activities help readers relate the guidelines in each text to the actual situation in their company, and to prepare well-structured implementation plans. A Roadmap to Quality is an online e-learning manual for implementing Total Quality.
role of measurement ROLE OF MEASUREMENT AND CALIBRATION IN THE MANUFACTURE OF PRODUCTS FOR THE GLOBAL MARKET. A GUIDE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

With a view to developing national capacity among the South Asian least developed countries, UNIDO has implemented a project entitled “Market access and trade facilitation support for South Asian least developed countries, through strengthening institutional and national capacities related to standards, metrology, testing and quality”. The project was financed by the Government of India and the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. The purpose of this guidebook is to assist small and medium enterprises and other interested users to understand in simple terms the role of measurement and calibration in the manufacture of products for the global market.
role of standards ROLE OF STANDARDS. A GUIDE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES.

The purpose of this guidebook is to assist small and medium enterprises and other interested users to understand in simple terms the development and implementation of company, national, regional and international standards, including implications of technical barriers to trade arising out of standards and technical regulations.
product quality PRODUCT QUALITY. A GUIDE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES.

The purpose of this guidebook is to assist small and medium enterprises and other interested users to understand, in simple form, how to control product quality. The book also includes various third party schemes for product certification and preshipment inspection, as well as information on how the WTO agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) can facilitate the product conformity assessment procedures.
industrial performance INDUSTRIAL PERFORMANCE AND CAPABILITIES OF CAMEROON. ANALYSIS OF THE INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

While acknowledging the strategic importance of industrial competitiveness in the national vision of development and poverty reduction, governments of developing countries do not often have an adequate framework of analysis at their disposal – unavailable information, lack of detailed knowledge and analytical tools, etc. – required to gain maximum advantage for decision-making purposes. This report attempts to fill those gaps.
methodoligical guide METHODOLOGICAL GUIDE: RESTRUCTURING, UPGRADING AND INDUSTRIAL COMPETITIVENESS

This publication is a methodological tool designed for the heads of industry in developing countries and economies in transition and also for consultants offering specialist advice in restructuring and industrial upgrading. The first part of the guide describes UNIDO methodology in the field of strategic diagnosis, restructuring and industrial upgrading of enterprises and their environment. The second part presents a number of successful experiments and programmes drafted and implemented by UNIDO in close collaboration with the authorities of a number of countries.
relevance of UNIDO service RELEVANCE OF UNIDO SERVICES TO THE RESPONSES TO THE WTO QUESTIONNAIRE IN DOCUMENT G/TBT/W/178

Based on the WTO’s Survey Questionnaire for the purpose of assisting developing countries in the identification and prioritization of relevant infrastructure requirements, the paper draws a parallel between TBT-related technical assistance needs and the corresponding UNIDO technical cooperation activities.
debt swaps DEBT SWAPS: A NEW OPPORTUNITY TO FINANCE TRADE CAPACITY-BUILDING. THE PROJECT UNIDO-ITALY-EGYPT

This paper aims to provide elements for discussing the possibility of using debt conversion mechanisms to finance trade-related technical assistance and capacity building (TRTA/CB). The current experience of UNIDO for the Egypt project in linking debt swaps and TRTA/CB (specifically, in assistance to developing countries to overcome possible TBT/SPS) is presented, showing its feasibility and possible replication in other developing countries.
labratory LABORATORY ACCREDITATION IN DEVELOPING ECONOMIES: TESTED ONCE - ACCEPTED EVERYWHERE

This paper was developed as a joint publication between the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) and UNIDO, in order to prepare laboratory accreditation bodies in developing countries for participation in the ILAC Mutual Recognition Arrangements.Reasons behind the establishment of an accreditation body, as well as background information on its essential operational requirements, are addressed in order to facilitate decisions by policy makers in the field of accreditation.
supply side constraints SUPPLY SIDE CONSTRAINTS ON THE TRADE PERFORMANCE OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES.

Africa’s need to build capabilities to increase SME’s supply capacity, quality, competitiveness and conformity with imported-mandated product standards is required to benefit from the available opportunities for the advancement of trade and industry in the continent. UNIDO’s technical knowhow and experience in programme conceptualization, implementation and fundraising, are valuable assets in the context of trade-related technical assistance.
building up trade BUILDING-UP TRADE INFRASTRUCTURE: LESSONS FROM STRENGTHENING THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENT FOR SUPPLY SIDE DEVELOPMENT AND CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT

The paper presents a holistic approach to building trade capacity related institutional infrastructure and highlights the benefits of creating an enabling environment for compliance with requirements of the multi-lateral trading system and its agreements. UNIDO’s experience in the development of standards and compliance infrastructure in the Asian region is also highlighted.
SPS SPS COMPLIANCE: A REQUISITE FOR AGRO-INDUSTRIAL EXPORTS FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

UNIDO responded to the Doha Development Agenda by realigning its technical assistance work, strengthening strategic partnerships with other trade-related agencies - the World Trade Organization (WTO), International Trade Centre (ITC) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) - and initiated its new Trade Capacity-Building Programme (TCB).
UNIDO responses UNIDO RESPONSES TO A SET OF QUESTIONS RAISED IN THE WTO “AID FOR TRADE” TASK FORCE IN ITS LETTER OF 29 MARCH 2006

The importance of trade to development, growth and poverty alleviation in developing countries is undisputed. It is also widely accepted that developing countries do not just need lower tariffs if they are to derive tangible benefits from the emerging rules-based global trading system; they need vastly improved capacities to produce and trade better quality products. The Doha Declaration confirmed that "technical cooperation and capacity building are core elements of the development." Within that context, this paper addresses nine specific issues that have been raised in the WTO Aid for Trade Task Force.
UNIDO submission SUBMISSION TO “AID FOR TRADE” TASK FORCE. EXAMPLES OF TYPICAL UNIDO INTERVENTIONS COVERING SUPPLY CAPACITY AND CONFORMITY.

The constraints analyzed by UNIDO within the case studies of the developing countries Sri Lanka, Cambodia and Pakistan, fall into the organization’s core mandate. Against this background, the expertise of UNIDO develops an enabling environment with regard to trade in the private sector and trade development.
TCB Briefs
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Number 7, June 2009

Both global trade patterns, as well as priority areas for trade development support, are continually on the move. The most recent turbulence on the landscape of trade-related technical assistance is undoubtedly the current global economic and financial crisis. What remains constant, however, is the need to enhance the capacity of exporters not only to produce competitive products that comply with international market requirements but also the capacity to prove compliance in a manner that is recognized by the importing market.
Number 6, December 2008

This issue of TCB Brief describes some of UNIDO’s efforts to provide support to food exporting countries. In line with its underlying policy of helping countries to help themselves, UNIDO opens doors to food producers and exporters to new opportunities, enables them to prepare themselves to place their products on world markets and helps them find their own solutions to the challenges facing them. The International Conference on “Sharing Innovative Agribusiness Solutions” was held last month on a farm near Cairo and brought together leaders and experts looking at ways to achieve sustainable agribusiness development and those with innovative solutions. It is understood that such “matchmaking” will produce concrete results in the near future.
Number 5, July 2008

Trade-capacity building is one of the cornerstones of UNIDO’s work and a prominent feature of virtually all its projects and programmes. TCB Brief allows all those concerned with industrial development — representatives of Governments, trade associations, international organizations, non-governmental organizations, private sector bodies and many more — an opportunity to keep abreast with what UNIDO is doing in this important area. The current issue focuses on the need for, and contribution of, trade-capacity building in the least developed countries (LDCs).
Number 4, November 2007

We are happy to present you with the fourth edition of the TCB Brief, which captures the main stories of 2007. For everyone working in the Trade Capacity Building field, the past year’s highlight was certainly the activities being undertaken to operationalize the Aid for Trade Initiative. UNIDO also took on a very pro-active role, both supporting policy dialogues among key stakeholders, especially in cooperation with the African Union, LDCs, NEPAD and G77, as well as developing technical assistance programmes that contribute practically to the Aid for Trade objectives.
Number 3, May 2007

Welcome to the third edition of the TCB Brief, where we hope to bring you the current issues and latest events in the Trade Capacity Building field. The highlight of the past few months for us was the launch in Tunis on 22-24 February of the first expert group meeting (EGM) of a series of regional EGMs to be held. The EGM, which was organized jointly with the African Union (AU), provided an opportunity to present the results of a regional African survey undertaken by UNIDO to identify the gaps in standards, metrology, testing, certification and accreditation infrastructure and services.
Number 2, November 2006

During the month of June, several crucial forums with key constituencies of UNIDO took place, which highlighted the role of technical assistance for trade capacity building in overcoming development concerns of less developed countries. The chairs of the Group of 77, which comprised G77 heads from New York, Paris and Geneva, convened in Vienna on 8-9 June. During the meeting a panel was held on Trade Capacity Building and Energy for Development with Mr. Yumkella, UNIDO Director-General, Mr. ElBaradei, IAEA Director-General and Mr. Kumalo, Chairman of the G-77 Chapter in New York.
Number 1, June 2006

The TCB Brief is designed as a regular update on the activities of the UNIDO Trade Capacity Building Programme. It will cover technical assistance projects aimed at individual countries, programmes linking technical institutions in developing and industrialized countries, as well as promotional activities in international fora. Since the Hong Kong Ministerial in December 2005, the international community has come to realize that if the Doha round is to yield tangible development gains, “Aid for Trade” needs to be scaled up and restructured. This introductory issue focuses on aid for trade and the contribution of UNIDO to this important initiative.
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